Annie Ross in the field.
Conventional Ecological Know-how: Indigenous Science, Archaeology and ‘Truth’
By: Annie Ross, Ph.D.
College of Social Science
The University of Queensland
Brisbane 4072 QLD
June 27, 2019
In 2018, my colleague, George Nicholas, wrote a Guest Column for the U.S. National Park Service as a response to some damaging comments on one more write-up he had written to additional argue that Conventional Ecological Know-how (TEK) is a genuine way of realizing about organic sources management. He argued against the criticism that any management strategy that applies Indigenous information as a valid management tool is ‘anti-science,’ ‘Left[wing] idiocy’ and ‘riddled with fallacies and misunderstandings.1 The vehemence of the critique Nicholas received did not surprise me. The call for TEK to be ‘approved’ and ‘supported’ by western science is not new.two Even so, there is a developing physique of proof in the archaeological record for the longevity of TEK. While I am not of the view that Indigenous people today have to have to have their information validated by western science, I assume it is exciting that, when these of us educated in a western scientific paradigm do recognise the worth of Indigenous oral testimony, it normally challenges our stereotypes in new and crucial approaches which can lead to revisions to common interpretations. In this paper, I evaluation the proof for TEK as ‘science’ and supply some examples of the scientific ‘testing’ of TEK that have led to reconsiderations of the science rather than reconsiderations of the Indigenous approaches of realizing.
Situating this point of view
I am an archaeologist by coaching. For 35 years I have worked with Aboriginal Australians, documenting their heritage and acquiring information about their attachment to Nation (the land and waters that make up their homelands). I have undertaken archaeological surveys and excavations, but mainly I have spent time listening to Elders and knowledgeable people today telling me about their ancestral Law and lore relating to managing the sources of the land, the sea, the lakes and the rivers. It is these conversations that have informed and shaped my information, and that have challenged my scientific paradigms.three
Indigenous information and science
Aboriginal people today have been taking care of the land and waters of the Australian continent due to the fact the Dreaming, when Ancestral Creator Beings created the planet and filled it with people today. According to Aboriginal Australians they have lived on the Australian continent ‘since the beginning of time’, contrasting with archaeological proof that dates the 1st human arrival in Australia to about 65,000 years ago.four There are lots of stories that inform of the approaches the planet was created and of the Laws assigned to people today who have been provided the suitable and the duty to handle creation. The information that Aboriginal people today bring to land and sea management comes from the lore of the Dreaming and the accompanying Law handed down by Creator Beings. The Law sets out the principles of organic sources management. For Aboriginal people today in southeastern Queensland, exactly where I reside, the Law is entangled with kinship relationships.
Uncle Denis Moreton, a Dandrabin-Gorenpul Elder, tells the story of the creation of North Stradbroke Island in Moreton Bay.five According to Dandrabin-Gorenpul information, Creator Beings created Law for the land, the sea, the animals and the people today. The 1st people today discovered the Law from the creators. A single such story relates to the partnership in between the organic capabilities of the land. The sand dunes of the island are male. The rain falling onto the dunes is sperm (moothie), which flows into the lakes (female) and provides life to all the plants and animals of the land. If the dunes are removed (for instance by sand mining – the dominant market on North Stradbroke Island) the cycle of life is broken.
The location occupied by Dandrabin-Gorenpul people today is identified as Quandamooka. The Dandrabin-Gorenpul people today of Quandamooka these days are the descendants of the Creator Beings and thus, they have a close connection to all the ecosystems of Moreton Bay, as these ecosystems are the habitats of their ancestors. Dandrabin-Gorenpul people today have a duty to hold the Law of their ancestors and to handle the land and waters of the bay in accordance with the Law.
The Dandrabin-Gorenpul people today of Moreton Bay are linked to their Nation — the land, sea and waters of the bay and islands — by ‘yurees.’ Every individual is assigned certain plant or animal yurees based on their kinship relationships and levels of information of Law. More than time, a individual will accumulate quite a few distinctive yurees, assigned at distinctive periods in his/her life, such as at birth and at other particular occasions associated to rites of passage. When a individual receives a yuree, that individual (along with all other people today who have been assigned the exact same yuree) becomes accountable for taking care of that yuree. The information of the yuree and its habitats comes from the intellectual home rights that are inherited along with the yuree, and the information of yuree management that is passed from 1 generation to the subsequent by knowledgeable Elders. In this way Dandrabin-Gorenpul Law guarantees the sustainable management of all the sources and habitats of the Moreton Bay area.
The assignment of yurees and the enactment of yuree rights and responsibilities continues these days, albeit normally in approaches that are now restricted by western legal impositions. For instance, the people today of Quandamooka are functioning with the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service to co-handle National Parks on North Stradbroke Island and Marine Parks in Moreton Bay. Aboriginal Know-how is utilised to make certain sustainable bag limits for shellfish collection off beaches and for recreational fishers in the bay. In addition, Dandrabin-Gorenpul holders of fire management information advise government bushfire solutions on how and when fuel reduction burns should really take location.
The use of Conventional Ecological Know-how in this way can, at occasions, be difficult for western-educated scientists. Nonetheless, TEK is Indigenous Science. Science is not generally performed in laboratories making use of chemical substances and complicated machinery. We in the west assume of science as objective ‘knowledge without a knower.’ This notion of science is foreign to Indigenous peoples for whom information is incredibly significantly personalised and social, even spiritual in its building. As a consequence, western scientific information and Indigenous approaches of realizing are normally deemed to be distinctive modes of believed. But even western science had its beginnings in spiritual beliefs.
In the Bible, when God made the 1st human, Adam, God gave him all information except for the Know-how of Very good and Evil.six When 1st Eve, then Adam ate the apple from the Tree of Know-how of Very good and Evil, God not only banished them from the Garden of Eden, He also took away all Adam’s information. In the 17th century, philosophers started a quest to re-find out all the information that God had taken from Adam, and specifically the information provided to Adam with regards to how to care for the organic order of issues. And so science emerged in western believed, with an emphasis on observations to find out the laws of nature. In lots of approaches, this search for information primarily based on organic laws and observations of organic processes is comparable to Indigenous approaches of applying the Law, provided to them by the Creator Beings and reinforced via information structures such as the yuree program, to the management of the atmosphere.
Absolutely there are variations in between western science and TEK, while neither is superior to the other. Western science is compartmentalised, with professionals realizing a lot about a incredibly specialised analysis location information is primarily based on empirical observations and objective analysis replicable experiments performed in controlled conditions are utilised to create universal truths and analysis final results are published in discovered, erudite journals. TEK is distinctive. While there are TEK professionals in lots of Indigenous societies, information is commonly shared all through the neighborhood empirical observations are crucial, but the function of spirits in watching more than information holders to make certain the Law is upheld is also regarded as crucial truths are locally primarily based and supported by narratives of creation (in Australia this is termed ‘the Dreaming’) and information is passed on via story, song and dance. The roles of spirit beings, Law, and social/kinship relationships are central to the conduct and the transmission of TEK all through Aboriginal Australia and in lots of other Indigenous societies about the planet. However in spite of these variations, there are also lots of similarities in between western science and TEK. Each western science and Indigenous science involve understanding the planet in which we reside. Each seek to find out the ideal approaches to take care of the earth’s ecosystems, and each are keen to make certain that information is shared so that it continues into the future.
Archaeology, Palynology, and TEK
Archaeological and other scientific proof, specifically proof from pollen cores (palynology) indicates that TEK has been practised about the planet for incredibly lengthy periods of time. A great deal of the proof in Australia relates to maritime sources management. On Peel Island in Moreton Bay, exactly where I have performed analysis alongside Conventional Owners, we have located proof for oyster shell discard that is indicative of oyster management in the bay that extends back extra than 1000 years.7
Interpretations of the final results of the excavation of the Lazaret Shell Midden on Peel Island have been primarily based on Indigenous Know-how of oyster management, rather than the usual scientific explanations for the variation noticed in the discard prices of oysters compared to other readily available shellfish species (Figure 1). Ordinarily, archaeological interpretations for discard patterns such as these would argue that oysters had been more than-exploited and, as their abundance declined, oysters have been replaced by other species till the organic cycle permitted oysters to create up their numbers once more or that violent storms or climate variation brought on oyster beds to be destroyed, forcing people today onto secondary sources. But for the reason that my students and I have been functioning with Conventional Owners and information holders, we have been in a position to re-evaluate that interpretation and create a incredibly distinctive understanding of the shell midden, primarily based on Dandrabin-Gorenpul TEK, as I now outline.